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The ground cover :
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The herbaceous layer:
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Taller plants some of which are perennials  where stem, flowers
 and seeds are of importance in addition to their leaves.  
The shrub layer:
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These are mainly ,and not exclusively, the fruit bearing perennials  
and form the third layer  of the forest garden.
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These are mainly fruit and nut bearers, evergreen or deciduous,
self fertile or partners to fruiters.They may also fix nitrogen in the soil
for the benefit of other plants. As hedging plants their pruning are
used as matches for other trees.
Climbers make use of other trees or structures for support.
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